# Actuals in Project Finance, Reviewing Other People’s Models, Timing Issues and Currency Issues

This is an intermediate page that leads you to discussion of incorporating actuals in project finance; reviewing other models; converting time lines and currency issues.  I have left some other exercise on this page including lock-ups, sweeps, defaults, IRR, and liquidated damages.  This stuff includes a few painful details of Project Finance models. Subjects include S-curves with delay or acceleration in construction; dealing with interest during construction, fees and the associated funding needs and construction; equity bridge loans; and, sculpting in situations where the amount of debt is given.

Timing is one of the keys to project finance. Different stages have different risks and must be defined in a model. Exercise 2 demonstrates how to structure inputs in a basic project finance model (it is associated with the project finance inputs video). The second exercise addresses how to structure a model with flexible dates so that different construction periods and project lives can be included in the analysis. The flexible dates and the advanced timing exercises demonstrate alternative ways to deal with different timing structures. I have made a lot of little exercises that may help you with particular project finance issues. I have not yet uploaded these files. If you send an email to edwardbodmer@gmail.com I will send you the files.

Exercise 2 – Flexible Dates.xls

Exercise 7 – Advanced Timing Issues.xlsm

Exercise 16 – Periodic Exercise.xls

Exercise 19 -Timing Exercise.xls

Exercise 9 – Delay Exercise.xls

Exercise 10 – Liquidated Damages.xls

Corporate Finance involves comparing the ROIC with WACC while project IRR is computed in project finance. This file demonstrates how to reconcile the ROIC and the IRR over the life of a project (it is associated with the IRR reconciliation video). The project IRR is related to WACC (although it is not very useful to evaluate WACC in project finance) and should be computed after tax. After-tax IRR is computed without IDC but after depreciation on the base plant. This file demonstrates how to compute after-tax IRR in a project finance model (it is associated with the project finance after-tax IRR video).

Exercise 28 – IRR Exercise.xls

The exercises below address various issues associated with cash flow waterfalls. Exercise six addresses the issue of adding cash sweeps to a model. The first part of the exercise shows how to model a basic cash sweep and evaluate the benefits of the cash flow sweep when cash flow falls off a cliff. One of the key issues with cash sweeps is to not include the cash sweep in the debt structuring part of the model. The fourth exercise illustrates how to create a cash flow waterfall that includes a default on debt and repayment of the default. Including provisions for a default on debt allows computation of the break-even point for things like delay in construction and other items. It also enables the evaluation of debt IRR for alternative types of securities. Exercise eight describes various modelling issues associated with cash lock-up accounts.

Exercise 4 – Debt Default and Debt IRR.xls

Exercise 6 – Cash Flow Sweep.xls

Exercise 8 – Cash Lock-up Covenant.xls

Exercise 17 – Subordinated Debt.xls Exercise 18 – Sweep and trap.xls

Sizing debt is a key issue in a project finance model.

This file demonstrates basic sizing from the DSCR (it is associated with the debt sizing video).

Exercise 19 – Level Debt and Goal Seek.xlsm

Exercise 10 – Debt Sizing with Function 1.xlsm

Exercise 11 – Debt Sizing Macro.xls

Exercise 3 – IDC and Debt Commitment.xls

Exercise 12 – Break Even.xls

Exercise 13 – Net Operating Loss Carryforward.xls

Exercise 15 – Average Life and Duration of Debt.xls

Exercise 21 – Re-Financing.xls

Exercise 25 – S-Curve with Normal and Weibull.xlsx

Exercise 3 – Project Finance Working.xlsm

Sample_Project_FM_Test_2016-01-3-2016.xlsm